Louise-Marie Suisse, 18, turned up for the hearing in a full-body niqab but with her face uncovered, and wearing gloves.
Suisse was stopped by two police officers near a mosque in the centre of Marseille in late July.
She was wearing a full-face veil and refused to cooperate with them, when asked to produce identity papers. She eventually bit one of them.
At Thursday’s hearing Suisse said she was “attacked” by the police, adding that “‘they told me, take off this rubbish’”.
France has outraged many Muslims with its law against full veils, which came into force in April 2011 and bans covering one’s face in public.
Violations are punishable by a fine of up to 150 euros ($190) or mandatory citizenship training.
About 300 women were caught breaking the veil law in the first year it was in force, according to the interior ministry.
When questioned, Suisse said she had left her ID papers in a car and added she bit the policewoman as she had “panicked”.
“I could not breathe so, yes, I bit her,” she said.
The policewoman’s lawyer Laurent Levy is claiming 2,000 euros (USD 2,535) in damages.
A ruling is due on September 20.